Hello everybody! Welcome to a lesson on color theory. What this is just showing you a line of colors that you can use to organize your palette so that you’re able to mix dark or darken the colors or make shades by using just pairs of colors rather than using black. This is how it’s organized – this would be organized so far if I was trying to mix greens or blues I’d organize it this way the blue is the middle, the greens are slightly in the middle, maybe purples, but I’ll just show you how this has arrived at. It goes back to very early color theory… A way of getting that line of colors is you have to go back to the very early color theories where the pure red and pure yellow and pure blue were seen as the three primary colors. This is the best way of understanding color theory I think if you start from those points, because all you need to remember is just yellow, red and blue. Put a triangle in and then there we call those the primary colors – the pure primary colors – and if you mix yellow and red together you get orange. Mix blue and red we get purple. Blue and yellow you get green… Put square around those… Now these secondary colors – so if you mix the the secondary color with the primary color will get a third color then if you mix the third color with the
secondary color we get the fourth color we get the fifth mix or the sixth mix we can go on for ever or whatever, going on and on but you have to find colors for each one so to make it easier, what we do is be just focus on the tertiary colors. We don’t go any beyond that – we’ll stay with tertiary so any color between the secondary and the primary color we will call tertiary colors. The best way of getting them is not trying to get the middle one but find two either side of the middle center one so we don’t have to give it a name. If I just bring a line in then – if I then mix orange with red leaving more red in it I get an orange-red and then if I mix the same if I mix orange red leaving more orange in it I get a red-orange. The last word is the actual name of the color so because it’s red it’s got more of a bias of orange in it. The other side of the red would be a purple-red and then a red-purple, blue-purple, purple-blue, green-blue, blue-green, yellow-green, green-yellow, orange-yellow and finally the yellow-orange. We ended up with with 18 colors which is a nice group of numbers and as you can see I’ve lined all these colors up at the top following these ideas and obviously you’ll get lots of different blues but quite a lot of those blues will be green-blues. We don’t get many purple-blues, in fact the purple-blues perhaps the light cobalt blue, definitely the french ultramarine blue is going on – it’s got a powerful purple bias to it but only slight… Most of the blues are with the green but if you look if you can see oranges go slightly towards red – you can see this all with your naked eye but this is so essential to be able to do this, so if you can then identify each color you’ve got as belonging to one of these, and then put them in a line – that’s essential learning for two-color mixing. So if you can try this everybody at home, try and do this – try to organise your colors. Where can you place all the yellows? Where’s the yellow – if you look at the yellows you see one’s slightly orange, so there you’ve got the cadmium yellow will be here, lemon yellow- there… Yellow-greens you’ve got bright green, the yellow green – any other yellow-greens? You’ve got permanent green belongs to the yellow green… The permanent green if you look at it is perhaps the closest to the purer green than the others but then you go over towards the blue-green you get viridian green, emerald green as well belongs to that area. And then as you move over you get the green-blues – this is the cerulean blue. Quite a lot of green blues: prussian blue, phthalo blue, cyan blue or the cerulean blue I put there is perhaps the lightest one – it’s easy to see in the camera I think. So you get the cerulean blue, with cobalt blue it depends – you can get a cobalt blue which is darker and tends to be a green-blue so cobalt blue coming across down here in the same area, but also it becomes a purple-blue and it’s bit like this one looks to me a bit purplish but again cobalt blue, a bit like the permanent green it’s perhaps the purest color closest to blue. It’s up to you whether you think it’s either side… Then you get the french ultramarine blue which has definitely got purple bias to it. Going over to ultramarine violet – it’s going slightly going towards blue-purple, missing the blue… The red-purples: cobalt violet – let me move over to the purple-red – the purple-red
with magenta which is now seen as the primary color of the pigments. That’s over this area, the purple-red area. Rose madder is there I suppose alizarin crimson is there as well but I think alizarin crimson is bit of a shade, and it’s not quite as cool as the rose madder I think rose madder is perhaps the most purest red we’ve got on the purple side Over on the other side we get the cadmium red which is closest the pure red and then vermilion so you get
cadmium red, vermilion over this side red-orange goes on – jumping across. Remember this is a circle or a triangle running round, and right across the other side over here we have the cadmium orange red-orange, cadmium orange coming across there… chrome orange, cadmium yellow deep – I would say chrome orange is in between those two, that would be here. The yellow looks like an orange – I put the cadmium yellow deep somewhere in between – a kind of yellow orange and orange-yellow orange-yellow being cadmium yellow and lemon yellow here – and back to where we started. And then it’s just a case of cutting this wherever you want and putting it… Obviously if I’m looking at mixing this blue I can maybe cut at the opposite of the blue around, then put it in a line, and I can see I’m ready to start mixing blues. Obviously if I wanted to mix a different color, I could put the yellows in the middle. But it’s really essential earning, everybody, if you really want to learn to how to mix colors with pairs. It’s a very beautiful way of mixing I think Edward Hopper, Vincent van Gogh, Monet – all those great modern painters were using pairs of color to mix. So if you want to learn that, you’ve got to try and learn that. It’s not as difficult as you think once you start doing it. It’s a process you’re learning. So good luck with that! See you soon!