MUDBOX 2015 HEAD and FACE sculpting, detailing, and painting tutorial


All right let’s start sculpting! We see that I’ve started with the Mudbox base head, and I have added some accessories to it: some
teeth, and some spheres for the eyeball. I modeled the teeth in Maya. I’m going to reshape the head around these props so that I can create
the overall form first. I’m using several major brushes for
this. First is the Wax brush that I use to build up volume. Next, is Foamy brush, used cut in sharp details.
And the last is the Grab tool that I’m using to adjust the shape of the mouth with here. Let’s talk about the Foamy brush first. I use it with a very sharp fall-off and
a negative value to cut detail into the surface. I use it to add very sharp edges, to really
define features. Wax brush is next. I like the wax
brush to add a lot of volume and to build up shapes. So I’m using it here to add eyelids, and then I’ll use the Foamy brush to cut in
around; to define them better. I also use the Wax brush to cut in for very large areas: the hollows under the
cheek bones or in the temples. And then the Grab brush, I use extensively to make overall changes to the form of my
objects, like reshaping the size at the skull,
repositioning the nose, and repositioning the features of the face on the model. Once the overall
structure is there, the basic shapes of the face are there, then I’ll focus on adding
detail. Usually for the face, this is in the
form blocking out muscle masses. We don’t tend to think of the face as
having a lot of muscle, but every movement on the face is defined by
muscles. The muscles are located in two key areas, the muscles around the eyes, and the
muscles around the mouth. We’re working in two radial areas, around the eyes and around the mouth. I’ll build-up volume… here I’m just using the Freeze brush in combination with the Grab brush to tilt the jaw to the side a little bit.
Now the object is very asymmetrical. So I have to be careful with
that. As I’m defining things I’m using the Grab brush, the negative Foamy brush, and
the Wax brush, to better shape the form of the muscles that are defining the characters features. So the overall shape is one aspect, butit’s the detail that
we put into fine features that really sells the model as being
interesting and lifelike. Not that this guy is at all lifelike! All right, now I’m using the
Pinch brush, and we see that I’m using it to sharpen the
details around the eyes. So, wrinkles in the muscles around the eyes, sharpening the crease of the eye lids, so we get a sharper defined border in that region. And we want to remember that lines on the
face, or anywhere on the body, aren’t actually there. There are no lines on the human form, the way we think lines
on, say, a comic book drawing. What we’re actually seeing is two
different muscle masses is pushing up against each other, forming a crease, and that crease creates
the illusion of a line. So when we’re creating negative lines, as I’m cutting in with my negative Foamy brush here, we end up pinching those together to
become sharper detail, so that they don’t look like big gouges that we’ve cut out of clay, but instead they look like two muscles
pushing up against each other, creating tension, where we end up with
that line, at it will start to read as a bit more
lifelike. One other tip for wrinkles is to blur the endpoints, where the wrinkles meet with
the rest at the surface around them, that will make them feel like they’re a part
that surface, instead sitting on top. Now I’ll start to use my pinch brush to define the wrinkles around the mouth, to
really get those laugh lines etched in around his face. And again, we want to remember that we’re not
trying to create lines, that it is muscular forces pushing up against each
other to create those creases. So we want to create those accordingly. Now because I made my face asymmetrical, I can’t paint with symmetry on my brush, we just want to keep that in mind. At
some points, we will be able to use symmetry, in other points with won’t be
able to use symmetry. We want to keep track of what a brush is
doing every time we start painting. Whenever I’m sculpting I always follow
the same general strategy: blocking in broad shapes of whatever sculpting first, and then I’ll start
to progressively add more and more detail, adding a little sharpness with the Pinch and the Foamy brushes. Whenever we’re sculpting, we have to
remember that sculpting tools, by their very nature, are very soft. We’ll see that as I add the Mohawk with the wax brush, the resulting shapes are very soft. All
the brushes do this. As a sculptor, we need to compensate for
that, and very specifically work on adding
sharpness and detail. In this case, I use the Grab brush to add sharp edges to the Mohawk. On the lips I’ll add sharp edges around the edges of the lips, the vermilion border, I think it’s called, with the Pinch brush. So I’m defining the
shape so we can see that anatomy better. I’ll do the same on the nostrils and the edges of the nose. And we can also use the Pinch brush to you straighten out lines. Wherever we
have wobbly lines because our hand wasn’t quite steady enough, we
can use the Pinch brush to smooth those lines out, to create nice soft curves. Watch as I start adding details on his cheek step: I step down to a
lower level of resolution, and this is because it’s
usually a lot easier to Smooth detail on those lower mesh levels. So if we’re
working on a high res mesh, and the smooth doesn’t seem to be working very well, we want to step down and use the Smooth on a lower level to resolve that problem. A good example is what I’m doing here around the eye area. I decided I wanted to change the muscles
and the detail in that region. Trying to smooth it a high level of detail
gave me poor results, so I stepped down and I’m able to very easily Smooth that detail. Then I can go back in and add new
detail on the various levels by using my Wax my Foamy brush to carve in sharper area detail. So adding mass to muscles:
I’m working in the nose area here. and I start using the Wax brush, but then I switch to using the Sculpt brush to get a more rounded bulge. I’m just trying to emphasize here that I
have multiple muscle groups pushing up against each other, and it
is those shapes that give us characteristics that we think of as a face. Next I will switch gears and work on the
neck. Now with the neck, I don’t expected to receive as much
attention as the face of the character. Because
it’s not going to receive as much attention, I don’t want to spend as much time working
on it, as I would the areas that I know will receive a
lot of attention. We want to remember that as artists,
we have a finite amount of time, and we want to spend it where it will do us the most good. Ok I just jumped in from Maya so that
we see where these eyeballs are coming from, these are eyes from a different character. I brought them into Mudbox, and I’ve
frozen them, and I will reposition my eyelids around
these eyes. I’ll be using the Grab brush and the
Pinch brush to create nice shapes, and similarly, I’m
importing these eyelashes in. And I’ll try to edit them in Mudbox using my Grab brush to position
them, but Mudbox only lets me position one at a time. It’ll take forever to do it that way. I need to go back into Maya and use
my move tool. I turn on my Soft Selection. If I set
my Soft Selection to Volume, the effect won’t be limited to the immediate object, it will spread to
the objects around it. That will allow me to very easily make the
changes that I need. Only one other point to make here: using
the right tools for the job makes that job a lot easier. So the eye area, let’s do the eyebrows. I start by using a Foamy brush, and instead of using negative, I’ll use it positive. And I’ll do it on a separate layer, so that I can use the Erase tool to blur the edges of it, so that the edges fade into the surface of the skin. With the Erase tool, any time we are using
that, we want to use it at a relatively low opacity / brush strength. Then I use the Pinch tool to sharpen those strokes, so they become a bit more ridged. Then I will Smooth over the
middle area, and that will blend it all together, to create something that looks like a whole, instead discrete strokes. Up next is our hair brush. We can see
that I have created a brush in Photoshop, it looks like three blobs of white and when I use that with the Repeat brush in
Mudbox, it gives us something that does do a nice job of creating sculptural looking effect for the hair. I’ll go over the entire Mohawk with this, and I’ll use larger brush strokes to fill in big areas, and then use smaller brush strokes to create more fine details. I will also go in and add individual strokes using the sharp negative Foamy brush along the base of the Mohawk to ground it to the head. I also use it whatever else I feel like I need to add detail to it. So speaking of detail, let’s add some skin detail to our object. I will use my Spray brush with a cellular
texture on it – and for all the skin brushes, these are brushes I
found online. You can search for Mudbox brushes, you
can also search for ZBrush alphas, you can use those as stamps as well. To create this skin, we have 3 separate
effects: the skin effect that we can see here, that we cover the entire
surface with. We want this on its own layer so we can control the strength of it. The next effect is large pores. And the large pores are
typically concentrated in the cheek area, on the nose a little bit, and the chin. We also add small pores, and these are
generally everywhere that big pores are not. And then we also want some transition
between the two types of pores, something that transitions from the big pores to the small pores. Fine
resolution detail like this can be difficult to see, we may have to zoom in for Mudbox to
render it properly, it can be helpful to go to Viewport Filters
and turn on Cavity Ambient Occlusion. Now, on to the
lips detail. I’m using that same hair brush we used
on the Mohawk to create the overall wrinkles on the lips.
And then I’ll Smooth those to blend those into the rest of the surface. Any time we’re working with fine details like these, we want to put it on its own Sculpting
Layer, so that we can make changes to just that layer alone. Now I’m adding wrinkles to the surface of the skin, and this is another Repeat brush I’m using here, someone created this really cool wrinkle brush. I think I found it on the ZBrush Central forums. We can see the wrinkles here on their
own, and you’ll see that I’ve turned the layers
for all the other effects off; the pores and the skin detailing. This allows me to
work exclusively on the wrinkles. So I will smooth them a little bit, so they blend into the surface of the skin better, so that they don’t look quite so sharp
edged and ragged. Up next is some simple texture painting.
I’m going to paint the Mohawk here. Because this
is just a color layer, I will just create a low res texture layer.
I use my Paint brush to apply the red to the surface, and then
use the Paint Erase tool to get rid any overspray onto the
surface. Next I use the Burn brush around base of
the Mohawk, to create a darker base that will anchor it to the head, just a little bit better, also looks like
dyed hair. I use the Dodge tool on the tips of the Mohawk to make it a little bit brighter and more vibrant, and draw attention to that area. Then I use both sets of tools to brighten and darken here and there. This creates groups or clumps of hair. This is the
subtle kind of detail that adds the little bit interest that the viewer won’t notice, but they will notice
that it’s not there. Next is painting the face. I’ve got the base color, a flesh tone. I’ll start with a reddish pinkish color and I will paint that in everywhere there are blood vessels close to the surface of the skins. This is typically around the eyes, the cheek area, on the chin, the neck, and on the forehead. The ears are pinkish as well. I’ll end up with a sunburnt looking
person, I’ll use the blur brush to spread that paint detail across the surface of the object, to create a more even feel. I’ll go back in with that Burn
brush and Burn around the eyes. I color in the lips with a reddish brownish color, and again I
use the blur tool to smooth that into the surface. The next
thing I will work on is the eyebrows. We see that I paint
the eyebrows in really really sloppy, and I use to Blur tool to blur it into the surface so it fits. And I’ll do something very similar for the
forehead vein. I use a purplish color, and a set the strength to be very low and paint that in and then just blend it into the surface. Now, let’s do some stubble for the shaved area of this guy’s head. I’ve created a new Texture Layer, but
it’s a Bump Layer, not a Diffuse Layer. I’ll use my Paint brush with a noisy stamp spray attached to it, and just spray that all over the area that would have stubble. So along the shaved head, and where the beard would be. Now, the trick is to make our color map match the stubble bump map. What we’ll do is, we’ll finish the
stubble, and then we’ll Duplicate Selected that stubble bump layer. So: right click, Duplicate Selected, and then right click, Move Selected, and move it to the diffuse channel. So that will take this stubble texture layer that we created, it will duplicate it, then move it to the diffuse channel, and now we have a color map it looks like the stubble that we painted.
And I’ll Invert it to make it black instead of white. And lastly, I’ll
create a new layer, and I choose a bluish grayish tint, and spray that blue-grey into the areas where we have that stubble. I’ll spray with noisy brush, and like I did with the skin, I’ll then Blur to blend it into the painting around it. And that’s about all there is to this
guy. Little bit of sculpting, little bit of painting, some trickery with the bump,

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